[xii] KNMI, ‘KNMI’14: Climate Change Scenarios for the 21st Century — A Netherlands Perspective’, Scientific Report (De Bilt: KNMI, 2014), http://www.klimaatscenarios.nl/brochures/images/KNMI_WR_2014-01_version26May2014.pdf; W. V. Sweet et al., ‘Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States’, NOAA Technical Report (Silver Spring, MD, USA: NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, 2017), https://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/publications/techrpt83_Global_and_Regional_SLR_Scenarios_for_the_US_final.pdf. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in the spatial coverage of tide gauges with long time series, including in Europe. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. However, the newest global climate models have not yet, typically, been downscaled to suitably fine scales and used in studies of future storm surges [vi]. the frequency and height of maximum water levels) may be caused by changes in local mean sea level (i.e. This report is an indicator-based assessment of past and projected climate change and its impacts on ecosystems and society. (2019): Persistent acceleration in global sea-level rise since the 1960s. Note: 23 (6 June 2017): 5946–51, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616007114. As far as the indicator derived from satellite altimetry is concerned, the global and European sea level trends are calculated from a combination of nine partly overlapping satellite missions. Sea level changes are measured using tide gauges and remotely from space using altimeters. A collapse of marine-based sectors of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (i.e. 2019: Persistent acceleration in global sea-level rise since the 1960s, doi:10.1038/s41558-019-0531-8, Relative sea level trends (tide gauge data), This map allows interactive investigation of global mean sea level trends since 1900, Global mean sea level reconstruction (satellite and altimetre, CSIRO). (2017): Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise, Legeais et al. Even a small action can make an enormous difference when millions of people do it! Additional water is added to the ocean from a net mass loss of glaciers and small ice caps, and from the large Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. Sea level rise has been accelerating since the late 1960s. In April 2013, the European Commission adopted an EU strategy on adaptation to climate change, which has been welcomed by the EU Member States. Sea level is an important indicator of climate change because it can have significant impacts on settlements, infrastructure, people and natural systems. The EEA is an agency of the European Union, Other 1 (17 June 2015): 15–23, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01309. Sea level rise raises the height of sea level extremes, making coastal inundation more likely. A. Scaife et al., ‘Skillful Long-Range Prediction of European and North American Winters’,Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. First, changes in water density are not expected to be spatially uniform, and the spatial pattern also depends on changes in large-scale ocean circulation. Additional water is added to the ocean from a net melting of glaciers and small ice caps, and from the disintegration of the large Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. No projections are available for the Black Sea. Projections for global mean sea level rise and its contributions in 2081–2100 relative to 1986–2005 from process-based models for the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and emisions scenario SRES A1B used in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Global mean sea level reconstruction (Uni Siegen), This dataset is described in the following publications: Dangendorf et al. In November 2013, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union adopted the EU's Seventh Environment Action Programme (7th EAP) to 2020, ‘Living well, within the limits of our planet’. The grey boxes show the median of the model projections (central bar) as well as the likely range, which comprises two thirds of the model projections. The EEA is an agency of the European Union, Other 8 (August 2017): 1563–72, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0148.1. ; J. Past sea level trends across Europe are reported in two different ways: first, absolute sea level change based on satellite altimeter measurements that reflect primarily the contribution of global climate change to sea level rise in Europe; second, relative sea level change based on tide gauges that also include local land movement, which is more relevant for the development of regional adaptation strategies. The overall aim of the EU Adaptation Strategy is to contribute to a more climate-resilient Europe. Our low-carbon growth has long been decoupled from resource use, setting the pace for a safe and sustainable global society.’, Overview of EU sector policies in which mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change is ongoing or explored, Overview of activities of EEA member countries in preparing, developing and implementing adaptation strategies. Currently, around 200 million people live in the coastal zone in Europe, as defined by Eurostat. (DOI: 10.1080/01490419.2012.717862) This will be achieved by bridging knowledge gaps and further developing the European climate adaptation platform (Climate-ADAPT) as the ‘one-stop shop’ for adaptation information in Europe. observed change in GMSL, based on two reconstructions from tide gauge measurements (since 1880) and on satellite altimeter data (since 1993); Oppenheimer et al. 6 (1 November 2013): 1441–58, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-013-9257-8. More recent reconstructions suggest a slightly lower rate of 20th century sea level rise, at about 1.2 mm/year (see red curve in Figure 1) [i]. Global and European sea-level rise, 19 Nov 2012 - These studies project an increase in storm surge level for most scenarios and return periods along the northern European coastline, which can exceed 30 % of the relative sea level rise under the RCP8.5 scenario. [vii] Church et al., ‘Sea-Level Change’; ; J. To get precise measurements for sea level, researchers studying the ice and the oceans on our planet factor in ongoing Data for other grid cells partly covered by land and by sea were extrapolated using the nearest-neighbour method. Reconstructions considered in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) estimate the rate of 20th century sea level rise at 1.6 mm/year, with significant decadal variation (see green curve in Figure 1). In April 2013, the European Commission (EC) presented the EU Adaptation Strategy Package. The frequency of flooding events is estimated to increase by more than a factor of 10 in many European locations, and by a factor of more than 100 in some locations (Figure 6) for the RCP4.5 scenario [x]. (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 13SM–1–13SM–8, http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_Ch13SM_FINAL.pdf. However, several recent studies suggest that changes in wave and storm surge climate may also play a substantial role in sea level changes during the 21st century in some regions. The contributions from ice sheets include the contributions from ice-sheet rapid dynamical change. While these high-end scenarios are somewhat speculative, their consideration is nevertheless important for long-term coastal risk management, in particular in densely populated coastal zones [xiv]. An extension (v1.1) of SL_cci+ XTRACK-ALES coastal sea level product is available. In April 2013, the European Commission adopted an EU strategy on adaptation to climate change, which has been welcomed by the EU Member States. [xvi] DeConto and Pollard, ‘Contribution of Antarctica to Past and Future Sea-Level Rise’. 9 (29 August 2016): 656–64, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2783. Estimates for the rate of GMSL rise during the period since 1993, for which satellite-based measurements are available, are considerably higher than the 20th century trend, at 2.4–3.2 mm/year (see dark blue curve in Figure 1). Currently, around 200 million people live in the coastal zone in Europe, as defined by Eurostat. [xiv] Jochen Hinkel et al., ‘Sea-Level Rise Scenarios and Coastal Risk Management’,Nature Climate Change 5, no. the local sea level relative to land averaged over a year or so), changes in tidal range, changes in the local wave climate or changes in storm surge characteristics. Thermal expansion and melting of glaciers account for around 75 % of the measured sea level rise since 1971. Values larger than 1 indicate an increase in flooding frequency, Past trends: extreme sea level along the European coastline. Level in 2016 was the highest yearly average over the record geographical features, such as storm.! 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