In this conformation, the dihedral angle is 0°. These reactions are given by unsaturated compounds or compounds containing multiple bonds. askIITians offers tutorials on all significant topics of Chemistry including Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry & Organic Chemistry. These are electron deficient species. 19 ratings. In the previous chapter, i.e. Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry . Class 10. The hydrides of carbon (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives are called organic compounds. These arrangements are called conformers. e.g., The homologous series of alkene group is. (ii) Stability of carbocation Greater the number of alkyl groups attached to a positively charged carbon atom, the greater is the stability. These can further be E1 or E2 reactions e.g., All CBSE Notes for Class 11 Chemistry Maths Notes Physics Notes Biology Notes. It is optically inactive due to external compensation. chlorine, sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus. It is a permanent effect and propagates through carbon chain. The series in which the molecular formula of adjacent members differ by a – CH2 unit, is called homologous series and the individual members are called homologous. These are obtained by photolysis or pyrolysis. e.g.. (ii) β – imination Here, the groups are eliminated from the adjacent carbon atoms. Generally, a meso compound have two or more chiral centres and a plane of symmetry. Organic chemistry began to emerge as a science about 200 years ago. Organic Chemistry Class 11 - Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (Part 2) 4.5. The compounds having same molecular formula but different spatial arrangement of atoms or groups are called stereoisomers and the phenomenon is called stereoisomerism. Chapter 12- Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques. They possess distinct colour and odour. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. In case of group of atoms, priority is decided by the atomic number of first atom. Select the principal functional group from the preference series : Functional group other than the principal functional group are called substituents. This system is applicable mainly for compounds containing one chiral atom. Strength of acid increases with the attachment of group showing – 1 effect and decreases with the attachment of group showing + I effect. Here, Cl has – I effect and alkyl group has + I effect. Reactivity of carbonyl compound is increased by – I showing groups. (c) Meso form The compound in which half part of a molecule is the mirror image of other half, is called meso form. Berzelius (1808) defined organic chemistry as the chemistry of substances found in living matter and gave the vital force theory. It involves delocalisation of 1t electrons. These are highly reactive planar species with Sp2 hybridisation. Compounds having similar physical and chemical properties but. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry , CBSE Class 11 Physics. Given below is a brief overview of questions covered in the exercises of Organic Chemistry Class 11. (b) Eclipsed conformation In this conformation, the atoms bonded to carbons at each end of a carbon-carbon bond are directly opposed to one another. 1. ENROLL. CBSE Class 11-science Chemistry Organic Chemistry. IUPAC amends these rules from time to time. Moreover, if the student aims to score maximum marks in Class 11 Chemistry Exam then, he/she is required to put in continuous efforts and rigorous practice as this subject has the tendency to challenge students at every step. (e) Atropisomers These are the isomers that can be interconvertible by rotation about single bond but for which the rotation barrier is large enough that they can be separated and do not convert readily at room temperature. (ii) Secondary carbon atom When carbon atom is attached with two other carbon atoms, it is called secondary or 2°carbon atom. Choose the word root from the table given below for the longest possible chain. It arises due to different alkyl groups on either side of the same functional group in a molecule, e.g.. according to the rules. These are the compounds of carbon with H, 0, N, S, P, F, CI, Br and 1. They do not conduct electricity because of the absence of free ions. It arises when two or more compounds have similar molecular formula but different carbon skeletons, e.g., When two or more compounds have same molecular formula but different position of functional groups or substituents, they are called positional isomers and the phenomenon is called position isomerism, It arises when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different functional group. Free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and nitrenes are important reactions intermediates. Primary prefixes are cycle, bicycle, di, tri, tetra, tries. It is optically inactive due to internal compensation, thus, it is not Double and triple bonds are also functional groups. chemistry ebooks, physical chemistry ebooks, ebooks, download chemistry books, download pdf chemistry books, cbse board, Class 11, Class 12, Organic chemistry books download pdf, chemical, ncert Chemistry book for class 11, ncert chemistry book for class 12, hindi, English 2. The neutral chemical species thus formed, is called free radical. 4. The chapter-wise list covered in NCERT Organic Chemistry Class 11 is tabulated below. F. Wohler synthesised an organic compound, urea from an inorganic compound, ammonium cyanate. Longest chain rule The chain containing the principal functional group, secondary functional group and multiple bonds as many as possible is the longest possible chain. Hence. When a multiple bond is present in a group, the atom at the end of the multiple bond is like as if it is equal to equivalent number of single bond. ‘They activate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic SUbstitution reactions except halogens. These are formed as a intermediate during the course of a reaction. The general characteristics of this series are : 1. (c) E-Z isomers In E-isomer, bulkier (heavier) groups are present on the opposite side of the double bond and in Z-isomer, heavier groups are present on the same side of the double bond. NCERT Books Class 11 Chemistry: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes Chemistry textbooks for Class 11. In benzene, resonance energy is 36 kcal/mol. (i) α – carbon Carbon which is directly attached to the functional group. 4. Structural Representations of Organic Compounds. Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. (if nucleophilic sites (or attacking atoms) are different nucleophilicity varies inversely with electronegativity). In this system, configuration R is given to the isomer in which sequence of groups is clockwise and S is given to the isomer in which sequence of groups is anticlockwise. acetic acid (acetum = vinegar), oxalic acid (oxalic), malic acid (pyrus malus), citric acid (citric), formic acid (obtained from red ant Heterolytic fission generally takes place in polar covalent molecules but in non-polar molecules, it takes place in the presence of catalyst like AiCI3) (anhy. This effect is also called no bond formation or Baker Nathan effect. Rachana Twinkle. ENROLL. That’s why they are also optically active. Acyclic compounds are straight or branched chain compounds. These are short lived and highly reactive. Structure with positive charge on more electropositive element and negative charge on more electronegative element is more stable. e.g., carbohydrates, proteins etc. With increase in the molecular weight of a series, the physical properties varies gradually. (c) Skew or Gauche conformation All other conformations in between eclipsed and staggered conformations are called skew or Gauche conformations. General Organic Chemistry Class 11 – PART 1. Electrophiles or Electrophilic Reagents. Ans: Vital force theory: This theory was presented by a Swedish Chemist, Berzelius in It involves delocalisation of σ electron of a C – H bond of an alkyl group attached directly to an atom of unsaturated system or to an atom with an unshared p-orbital. The order of stability of singlet carbenes is. Free radicals are highly reactive. Presence of + I showing groups increases the basic strength of amines. Organic compounds containing a multiple bond between carbon and a more electronegative atom can act as amphiphiles, e.g.. Number of geometrical isomers (if two ends are not similar = 2n where, n = number of double bonds). (ii) Nucleophilic substitution reactions In these reactions, nucleophiles are the attacking species. 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General Organic Chemistry Class 11 – PART 2. possible to convert it into d and I form e.g.. (d) Racemic mixture It is a mixture of enantiomers in 1 : 1. In such formulae, it is assumed that required number of H-atoms are present, where ever, they are necessary (to satisfy tetravalency of carbon) e.g.. There are two types of suffix : 1) Primary suffix : A primary suffix is always added to the … Number of π bonds ∝ contributing structures ∝ resonance energy ∝ stability. 2. The sideways overlapping is weak and thus, makes the benzene more reactive. The chair form and the boat forms are extreme cases. It is defined as the polarity produced in a multiple bonded compound as a reagent approaches it. Topics in this lesson. neutral and electron deficient species. The increase in electron-electron repulsion upon rotation from staggered to an eclipsed conformation is referred to as torsional strain. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Worksheet for students has been used by teachers & students to develop logical, lingual, analytical, and problem-solving capabilities. 11 lessons. JEE NEET Study Material : Notes , Assignment. (Ha). Questions 1 to 12 of Organic Chemistry Class 11 PAGES - 1326. The hydrides of carbon (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives are called organic compounds. In these reactions, two groups from the same or adjacent atoms are lost and electron deficient or unsaturated compound is formed. 3. differ only in behaviour towards plane polarised light are called enantiomer & or optical isomers and the phenomenon is known as optical isomerism. The isomers having same molecular formula but different spatial arrangement of atoms about the double bond are known as geometrical isomers and this phenomenon is called geometrical isomerism, e.g.. For exhibiting geometrical isomerism, the essential conditions are : 1. In this type of isomerism, compounds have same molecular formula but different structures. IUPAC accepted their common trivial names e.g.. (ii) Triplet carbene In it, the central C-atom is sp-hybridised. The branch of chemistry which deals with these compounds is called organic chemistry. The NCERT Chemistry Books are based on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus. If more than two similar functional groups are present, all the groups are considered as substituent, e.g.. For alicyclic compounds, prefix cyclo is used e.g.. Presence of groups showing + I effect increases the stability of carbocation while presence of groups showing – I effect decreases their stability. Cyclic compounds contain carbon and sometimes other atoms in the form of a ring. e.g.. The course will be covered in Hindi and notes will also be provided in English. It can be judged by the following rules : 1. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter. Generally asymmetric or chiral compounds show optical isomerism Chiral compounds are those which contain chiral centre i.e., chiral carbon, the carbon all the four valencies of which are satisfied by four different groups. This is possible only when you have the best CBSE Class 11 Chemistry study material and a smart preparation plan. priority order is, 4. CBSE Class 12 Chemistry , CBSE Class 12 Physics. e.g.. They have different physical and chemical properties. Share this Video Lesson with your friends Support US to Provide FREE Education Subscribe to Us on YouTube Next > Try Further learning steps . The atom e.g., -CI, -Br etc., or group of atoms e.g., -COOH, – CHO, which is responsible for the chemical properties of the molecule, is 5. Organic compounds were more difficult to work within the laboratory and decompose easily. Hindi Hydrocarbons (Hindi) Isomerism: Class 11 Chemistry. 2. When all the properties of a molecule cannot be shown by a single structure and two or more structures are required to show all the properties of that molecule, then the structures are called resonating structures or canonical forms and the molecule is referred as resonance hybrid. This phenomenon is called resonance. Stereoisomerism is of three types : optical isomerism, geometrical isomerism and conformations. (c) Conformers of 3 – fluoro butan – 2 – ol. These are generally volatile and inflammable. These are electron deficient species i.e., behave as Lewis acids. Modern … class 11, chemistry, cbse board, ncert notes, physical chemistry notes, organic chemistry notes, analytic chemistry notes, download notes, free ncert notes, cbse board notes, class 11 notes download pdf (ii) β- carbon Carbon which is directly attached to the n-carbon. 5 lessons. 3. They deactivate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. Maths 10; Science 10; Social Science 10; Social Science 10 Hindi; English 10; Hindi A 10; Hindi B 10; Sanskrit 10; Class 11. e.g., halogens, – COOH,- COOR,- CHO,- CN,-NO2 etc. The groups present at the double bonded carbon atoms, must be different. the first organic compound synthesised in laboratory, by Wohler. are said to have electron attracting or negative inductive effect (- I) while that having, smaller electron affinity than hydrogen are said to have electron releasing or positive inductive effect (+ I) e.g.. Quantitative analysis refers to assessing how much is present in a sample of a given item. Electron withdrawing group (E.W.G.) In bicycle compounds, numbering is done first in larger ring, then in smaller ring. Then Hybridised orbitals contain no electrons and a hybridised orbital contains two electrons : Singlet carbene has bent structure and is less stable than triplet carbene. The following species behave as electrophiles : (i) All non-metal cations and metal cations which have vacant d- orbitals. An organic compounds can be represented by the following ways : In it, all the bonds present between any two atoms are shown clearly. given above, the IUPAC name of a compound can be written as, or Prefixes + Root word + Suffixes Primary prefix + secondary prefix + Root word + primary suffix + secondary suffix. These species behave like both electrophiles as well as nucleophiles. gave death blow to the vital force theory. On this basis these reactions are of two types : (i) Electrophilic substitution reactions When leaving group is replaced by an electrophile, the reaction is called electrophilic substitution reaction. Naming the prefixes and suffixes Prefix represents the substituent and suffix is used for principal functional group. 3. 1. Carbon bearing a positive charge is called carbocation and carbon bearing negative charge is called carbanion. R is called alkyl group, it contains only single bond; alkenyl group if contains double bond and alkynyl group if contains triple bond. (iii) Tertiary carbon atom When carbon atom is attached with three other carbon atoms, it is called tertiary or 3° carbon atom. e.g. 3. principal functional group gets the lowest number. Your email address will not be published. English Hydrocarbons Organic Chemistry Class 11 - … -PHYSICS WALLAH(ALAKH PANDEY) [one lecture from UNACADEMY(PARAS THAKUR ) on alkynes-hydrocarbon ] Electron donating groups producing. producing – R effect are meta directing. Furthermore, these compounds are exceptionally stable because of the small size of carbon. DOWNLOAD Download Cengage organic chemistry pdf download best Organic chemistry book for jee advance 2. the sum of numbers of side chain is lowest. Priority is given to the atom having high atomic number e.g., in CI, Br and F, the priority order is Br > CI > F. 2. 8 ratings. 2. Prefix ‘spiro’ is used for the compounds in which one carbon is c nunOli between two rings ; Here, smaller ring is numbered first, e.g.. Prefix ‘bicycle’ is used for such compounds e.g.. (i) D-L configuration The optical isomer in which H is present towards left hand side and the other group towards right hand side, IS D-form while in which, H is present towards right and the other group occupy the left position, is L-form. Presented by GL Kapde 3. 4. Allenes, spiranes and biphenyl compounds, although have absence of chiral centre, but are asymmetric. hydrogen. If n = odd, number of optical active isomers = 2n – 1 – 2(n – 1) / 2. the dihedral angle between the bonds at each of the C-C bonds is 180°. theory book organic CHEMISTRY CONCEPTUAL explanation. On the Basis of Position of Functional Group. April 22, 2019. in CBSE. (iv) Quaternary carbon atom When carbon atom is attached with four other carbon atoms, it is called quaternary or 40 carbon atom. (b) Tetravalency and small size Carbon being tetravalent, is capable of bonding with four other C atoms or some other monovalent atoms. These are neutral monovalent nitrogen species in which N atom has two unshared pair of electrons with a monovalent atom or group attached. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Notes : General Organic Chemistry. There are two main types of isomerism i.e.. Reading Time: 21min read 0. The Revision series is designed for all JEE & NEET aspirants to provide quick revision of complete Organic Chemistry. In staggered conformation. (ii) Lewis acids (incomplete octet) e.g., BF3, ZnC12 (anhydrous), FeCl3 (anhydrous), AlCl3 (anhydrous), :CH2 etc. [Videos] Complete Etoos Videos series for free MPC November 11, 2020 [PDF] Download S.B.Mathur solved problems in Physics November 4, 2020 [PDF] Read JH Sir Physical chemistry Notes for class 11 JEE October 28, 2020; DISCLAIMER : This website is created solely for Jee aspirants to download pdf, eBooks, study materials for free. Halogens slightly deactivate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. These may be gases, liquids or solids. If the alkyl chain contains a greater number of C-atoms than the ring, the ring is designated as substituent, e.g., If side chain contains a multiple bond or a functional group, the ring is treated as a substituent e.g. The NCERT Class 11th Chemistry textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. If the first atom of the group of atoms is same, the priority is decided by second atom of the group e.g., among -COOH, -CH2OH and-CHO. The energy content of all the canonical forms must be nearly same. Write bond-line formulas for: Isopropyl alcohol, 2,3-Dimethylbutanal, Heptan-4-one. In resonance. In the absence of functional group, secondary group and multiple bonds, the chain containing the maximum number of C-atoms will be the longest possible chain e.g. These are electron rich species i.e., behave as Lewis bases. These reactions are given by alkenes and alkynes. (formicidae)]. All the members can be prepared by almost similar methods. 1. branching if present gets the lowest number. Also, Read: Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Also, Read: Purification of Organic Compounds. Classification and Nomenclature Organic compounds can be broadly classified as acyclic or open chain and cyclic or closed chain compounds. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The compound having same molecular formula but differ in properties are known as isomers and the phenomenon is known as isomerism. + R effect are ortho and para directing. Number of optical active isomers = 2n (where, n = chiral carbon). Complete Structural Formula – Full structural … More the E.W.G, more is the acidic nature. 4. These are obtained by thermolysis of azides and as reactive as carbenes. Organic Chemistry Some basic principles and TechniquesGeneral IntroductionTetravalence of Carbon Shapes of Organic CompoundsStructural Representations of Organic CompoundsClassification of Organic CompoundsNomenclature of Organic CompoundsIsomerismFundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction MechanismMethods of Purification of Organic CompoundsQuantitative Analysis. This effect may be of + R type or – R type. (d) Conformers of cyclohexane The cyclohexane ring can assume many shapes due to rotation around C-C bonds. All the important topics will be discussed in detail and would be helpful for aspirants preparing for the NEET exam. Also, Read: Important Question on Organic Chemistry. Non-polar structure is more stable than the polar structure. Here. (ii) Threo-erythro system When the same groups are present at the same side of the carbon chain, the form is called erythro form. However, one similar group should be present at the adjacent double bonded carbon atoms. The important topics will be discussed in detail and would be helpful for aspirants preparing the. Matter and gave the vital force theory Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques compound! Chemicals compounds appear in materials like clothing, fuels, polymers dyes and medicines.2 specific! The first Organic compound synthesised from its elements - CN, -NO2 etc preparing for the NEET exam most disciplines! Chiral carbon ) isomerism and conformations for compounds containing one chiral atom you make best. The n-carbon contains a formal carbon-carbon triple bond in aromatic molecule 1 showing groups groups should be more electronegative is. Your friends Support US to provide free Education Subscribe to US on YouTube Next Try! Course will be covered in the presence organic chemistry class 11 + I effect increases the stability of carbocation while presence sunlight. A special type of isomerism, compounds have specific properties depending upon nature. 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Chemical method 11 of NCERT Chemistry Books are based on the latest exam and. This set of elements even further, these compounds have specific properties depending the... By following rules are used to write the IUPAC ( International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ),. Reactions are given by the following species behave like both electrophiles as well from this chapter of...