[13] The intercommunal violence, the coup, and the subsequent invasion led to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Cypriots.[14][15]. The 1960 constitution put in place a form of power-sharing, or consociational government, in which concessions were made to the Turkish Cypriots minority, including as a requirement that the vice-president of Cyprus and at least 30% of members of parliament be Turkish Cypriots. J. D. Muhly, "The role of the Sea People in Cyprus during the LCIII period. Rectangular corbelled tombs point to close contacts with Syria and Palestine as well. Most scholars believe it was used for a native Cypriot language (Eteocypriot) that survived until the 4th century BC, but the actual proofs for this are scant, as the tablets still have not been completely deciphered. These languages are used by the government, courts, administration, media, and educational institutes of Cyprus. Both the regular layout of the cities and the new masonry techniques find their closest parallels in Syria, especially in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra). Apart from these languages, 76 % of the Cypriot population speak English, 12% speak French and 5% speak German. The de facto state of Northern Cyprus was proclaimed in 1975 under the name of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus. Cyprus therefore sided with the Avignon Papacy in the Western Schism, in the hope that the French would be able to drive out the Italians. Cyprus has always been an important island in the Mediterranean sea as many civilizations have tried to conquer it.Cyprus history can be traced all the way back to the Mycenaeans , the Phoenicians , Egyptians , Assyrians and Persians. Authorization from authorities is required in advance to photograph archeological sites, military zones and the demarcation line, underwater and by air. Standard Modern Greek and Standard Turkish are the two official languages of Cyprus. Ptolemy lost Cyprus to Demetrios Poliorketes in 306 and 294 BC, but after that it remained under Ptolemaic rule till 58 BC. Cyprus has a long history that incorporates nearly 12,000 years of human activity. For centuries its rule passed through many hands. Similar jar burials have been found in cemeteries in Kourion-Kaloriziki and Palaepaphos-Skales near Kouklia. Proceedings of an International Symposium Sponsored by the Pierides Foundation. Mycenaean Greeks were undoubtedly inhabiting Cyprus from the late stage of the Bronze Age, while the island's Greek name is already attested from the 15th century BC in the Linear B script.[5][6]. It was first inhabited by Neolithic man and subsequently settled by the Mycenaean Greeks, before being conquered in turn by the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians then seized by Alexander the Great in the fourth century. Cyprus definition, an island republic in the Mediterranean, S of Turkey: formerly a British colony; independent since 1960. Achaean Greeks inhabit Cyprus mostly after the Trojan war, even though they have been colonizing since 1200BC; Achaeans are spreading Greek language, religion and customs. A Persian palace has been excavated in the territory of Marion on the North coast near Soli. Weights in the shape of animals found in Enkomi and Kalavassos follow the Syro-Palestinian, Mesopotamian, Hittite and Aegean standards and thus attest to the wide-ranging trade as well. The island has an area of 9,251 square kilometers (3,572 square miles), measuring 226 kilometers long and 98 kilometers wide. The Mameluks then made the kingdom a tributary state in 1426; the remaining monarchs gradually lost almost all independence, until 1489 when the last Queen, Catherine Cornaro, was forced to sell the island to Venice. The nationalists on both sides campaigned for the rejection of the plan, the result being that Turkish Cypriots accepted the plan while Greek Cypriots rejected it overwhelmingly. The resulting plan was supported by United Nations, European Union and the United States. Summers can last for 8 months. For most occasions, casual attire is acceptable. Cyprus also finds mention in ancient Christian literature like the Acts of the Apostles. More formal wear is required for business, and in more exclusive dining rooms and social functions. This is first indication of the use of Greek language on the island. They are said to show the sophistication of early settlers, and their heightened appreciation for the environment. The shaft grave contained two bronze rod tripod stands, the remains of a shield and a golden sceptre as well. It was first inhabited by Neolithic man and subsequently settled by the Mycenaean Greeks, before being conquered in turn by the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians then seized by Alexander the Great in the fourth century. They declared Latin the official language, later replacing it with French; much later, Greek was recognized as a second official language. The Greek Cypriot dialect is different from mainland Greek. The ten kingdoms listed by an inscription of Esarhaddon in 673/2 BC have been identified as Salamis, Kition, Amathus, Kourion, Paphos and Soli on the coast and Tamassos, Ledra, Idalium and Chytri in the interior. The hellenisation of the island was then in progress. For the next 300 years, Cyprus was ruled jointly by both the Arabs and the Byzantines as a condominium, despite the nearly constant warfare between the two parties on the mainland. As we have already mentioned earlier, the origin of English language in Nigeria makes it start from the colonial period. After c. 850 BC the sanctuaries [at the Kathari site] were rebuilt and reused by the Phoenicians."[11]. The general population uses Cypriot Greek and Cypriot Turkish as everyday spoken languages. In 2002 UN Secretary General Kofi Annan started a new round of negotiations for the unification of the island. However the EOKA campaign did not result in union with Greece but rather an independent republic, The Republic of Cyprus, in 1960. After Cyprus became a member of the European Union in 2004, it adopted the euro as its currency on January 1, 2008, replacing the previously used Cypriot pound; Northern Cyprus continued to use the Turkish lira. There are other inscriptions referring to Ia' in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad. Between 1955 and 1959 EOKA was created by Greek Cypriots and led by George Grivas to perform enosis (union of the island with Greece). The 1960 constitution, underpinned by a treaty of guarantee between Cyprus, Greece, Turkey and the UK, was regarded as provisional by both the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. 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